i am proud to say i am a vegetarian. my motto: everyday is a good day!
|Languages Spoken||english, cantonese, mandarin|
|English Name||munchoy siew|
|Member Since||November 19, 2008|
who has the binoculars???read the sentence...the spy saw the man with the binoculars if you break the sentence into segmentsthe spy saw the man with the binocularsandthe spy saw the man with the binoculars then you will have intrepretedthe spy with the binoculars is looking at a man (ist segmented sentence)andthe spy is looking at the man with the binoculars (2nd segmented sentence) what you have experienced is understanding a sentence as part of cognitive psychology. isn't it fun!!!
well, the very basic surviving skill should be what???
i recently took a intense first aid course. for three consecutives nights from half past six to ten in the evening after a tiring day in school, its really a very stressful course. lucky for me, the instructor is an experienced pharamedict, he took up by theroy what we should do and by practice what we could do...
about first aid course... the most interesting part is the cpr - cardio-pulmonary resuscitation, best known as the kiss of life...
when the instructor told us that we must do this and that,,, and he explained cardio is for heart, pulmonary is for lungs, resuscitation is to revive... in lay man's term its bring air to the lungs and make the heart pump blood to the brain, cause any part of your body could die but you still can survive, but not for the brain, as long as the brain is out of oxygen for 4 to 6 mins... you are dead!!!
so doing cpr is fun, er except for the fact that you must do it mouth to mouth...
wrong, what happens if the person is bleeding for the mouht, do you still do mouth to mouth...
cpr is not necessary to do it mouth to mouth, the most important thing is to clear the air way, and then check for breadthing, if there is no breadthing, then cpr is required... you just have to till the head back a bit to make sure the air way is clear and then use your hand and pump the lower part of the heart 30 compression followed and check for breadthing again...
if you are really keen , go to take a first aid course, they will teach the proper and correct way to do cpr, not as those shown on tv and dramas...
i realise that ya, the basic surviving skill one has to be equiped with is to be able to perform first aid if needed, to safe lives and yourselves...
the other interesting factor learnt in this first aid course is the injury mechanisim, after this every one of us are professional killers, we could kill anyone easily once we understand the injury mechanisms, of course we are not out to kill... but knowing the injury mechanism, we actually able to protect ourselves and our loves ones and also prevention is better than cure.
learning the first aid course also highlighted to us some changes in technology for saving lives... there is now available to anyone who is taught to use the AED, and this machine gives a better change of reviving the heart to twenty percent that is more than twelve percent than that done by cpr... interesting... there are so much to share... so go ahead and learn a first aid course to know the excitment that i felt and have enjoyed.
the things there are cheap, much cheaper than in Singapore, but however, the living standard there is not so well...
the first is staying at a 3 star hotel... let me advice you, if anyone should want to stay in a 3 stars hotel, make sure its not old,,. the one i was staying is well 25 yeears old...
the maintanence of many things were bad...
the worst its... i saw two centerpede... the posionous kind in the bathroom... the first one was at the toilet bowl and i wonder how it got there in the first place, lucky enough for me, my niece just flushed it down,,, the second centerpede was at the bath tub... before i want to take a bath, i was getting ready, u know what i mean, and the water is running, at then i saw this more than 10cm centerpede crawling out of the pipe hole ... i was still wearing my glasses so i can see very clearly... omg... i shouted for my niece and well they came running to me and shouting and this time busy taking photographs and lucky i was not naked yet lol.
the second bad experience this round was that the seller or vendors are not honest... they see that i was a tourist and start to quote rediculous prices... and the best thing is having learnt some simple thai words helps because the sales girls can shout in thai like 2 piece at whole sale price (purchase two piece at a discount price) and when i asked them how much they can say three piece purchase at whole sale price... haha...
sure thing is there is no place better than home but the process and the experience is good and enjoyable and fruitful.
Running head: EFFECTS AND INTERVENTIONS FOR FAMILY VIOLENCE. prefix = o ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office" /
PSY207 TMA02: Family violence with its effects and interventions
Siew Mun Choy
Effects and interventions for family violence.
According to a report by National Clearinghouse on Family Violence (Health effects of family violence, 2003), family violence happens when one family member inflicts harm to another family member through means of verbal abuse, threats or causing physical injury to another member in the family. Family violence ranges from physical, emotional, financial, sexual abuse to negligence. Victims often suffered lasting effects in physical, emotional and psychological (Barnett, Miller-Perrin & Perrin, 2011).
According to Barnett, Miller-Perrin and Perrin (2011), family violence affects every member in the family. The abused are often dominated by the abuser. The abused are often isolated thus making it difficult for the victim to get outside help. The abused also depend on the abuser financially, and emotionally. Victims tend to live in fear and yet dare not break away from the violence. Emotionally and psychologically, victims often felt helpless, confused, and anxious which resulted in having low self-esteem. Sometimes, thoughts of suicide do cross their minds and in severe cases, the abused can get badly injured, and end up losing their lives (Barnett, Miller-Perrin & Perrin, 2011).
The effects of family violence are endless. In the report by National Clearinghouse on Family Violence (Health effects on family violence, 2003), women who were physical and sexual abused gave birth to babies with low birth weight which can be linked to infant and child illness such as disabilities and death. Babies may suffer harm in the uterus when pregnant mother is punched in the stomach. Pregnant mothers who suffered psychologically can develop alcohol or drinking addictions. Alcohol addictive can affect babies to develop fetal alcohol syndrome and fetal alcohol effects in children and eating disorder were found to be more likely to develop osteoporosis and complications during pregnancy.
Beside females, males can be victims in family violence. The abused men are equally affected emotionally, physically and psychologically as females. They are upset, confused, hurt and disappointed and have low self-esteem (Hines & Malley-Morrison, 2001; Russell, Dobash & Dobash, 2004). According to Lupri and Gardin (2004) unlike females who reported family violence and received readily available assistances, men often faced with disbelief as they have to struggle against social norms and customs of their masculine image of being self-reliant and independent, tougher, bigger and stronger than women (Hines & Malley-Morrison, 2001; Russell, Dobash & Dobash, 2004).
The lives of abused children are affected with physical injuries and they too suffer emotionally and psychologically that can affect their school performances and social relationships. According to the report by National Clearinghouse on Family Violence of Canada Government (Health effects of family violence, 2003), children are at risk of physical injury and even death when they may be accidentally struck during physical violent confrontation between parents and they can suffered permanent damage to the development of the brain if maltreatment occurs in the early years of childhood development (Cicchetti & Valentino, 2006; Margolin & Gordis, 2006 as cited in Sigelman & Rider, 2009).
Malinosky-Rummell and Hansen, (1993 as cited in Sigelman & Rider, 2009) and Shonk and Cicchetti (2001 as cited in Sielgman & Rider, 2009), mentioned that abused children suffer intellectual deficit. They also have IQ scores of eight points lower than average children who were not exposed to domestic violence (Koenen et al, 2003 as cited in Sigelman & Rider, 2009).
Besides cognitively affected, behavioural problems are common among these children. They tend to be aggressive and emotionally affected as they often faced rejection by their peers because of their behaviour (Flores, Cicchetti and Rogosch (2006 as cited in Sigelman & Rider, 2009). Reynolds (2003 as cited in Sigelman & Rider, 2009) also noticed that these children are emotionally and over sensitive and often perceived anger in their peers when there is actually none. Margolin and Gordis (2000 as cited in Sigelman & Rider, 2009) stated that abused children showed physical violence not only when in the family, but also outside the family and they tend to have higher chances of developing psychological problems such as depression and anxiety. Main and George (1985 as cited in Sigelman & Rider, 2009) discovered that children who are targets of family violence are lacking in social and emotional development as well. They are not able to show empathy to the distress of others. Abused toddlers express anger and attack any crying children. According to Sternberg et al. (2006 as cited in Sigelman & Rider, 2009), children who only witness family violence also display as many behaviour problems as those who are targets of family violence.
Family violence often causes teenagers to leave their homes at an early age. These teenagers often lack in social and financial support. They ended up living in neighbourhood that is unsafe with high crime rates, prostitution, and unprotected sex. They also tend to resort to violence as a form of resolution which they are familiar with. This resulted with high society cost (Travis, Auchter & Thomas, 1998).
Old aged people can also suffer family violence that can affect them physically, emotionally and psychologically. Often faced with empty nest (Sigelman & Rider, 2009), weaker in their physical health, they may be dependent on other family members for their well-being. The effects of family violence are often worsening if these elders are financially unsound (Barnett, Miller-Perrin & Perrin, 2011).
Although family violence are common and affect family lives, victims of family violence are not alone in dealing with violence at home. In Singapore, a multi-disciplinary framework termed “Many Helping Hands” approach underlines the social service delivery mechanism and espouses the principle that the various agencies including the government, the community and families to work together (Ministry of Community Development, Youth and Sports, 2009).
Family Service Centres (FSCs) provide counselling and advice on safety plans, financial assistance, crisis shelters and advice on type of community resources for members who are in danger of family violence. These service centres are of easy access and often found within the neighbourhood (Ministry of Community Development, Youth and Sports, 2009).
Assistance to victims of family violence also comes from the Family and Juvenile Court which has a Family Protection and Transformation Unit to help victims to seek legal helps. The Family court also sent abusers to seek professional help from counsellor through the Mandatory Counselling Programme (Ministry of Community Development, Youth and Sports, 2009). Such empowerment programme helps the victims to take steps to end violence in their lives and to educate the abuser of better emotional and behavioural control.
Help are also provided in schools, hospitals and clinics. When teachers or doctors noticed or suspected family violence, the victims would be referred to FSCs or medical social worker for further assistance and counselling. There are also more public educational programmes to provide more awareness for family violence (Ministry of Community Development, Youth and Sports, 2009).
However, family violence is often unreported and help are only available after damages occurred (Barnett, Miller-Perrin & Perrin, 2011). Despite the roles of females have changed and evolved over the years (Sigelman & Rider, 2009), there is not much change in the profile of victims especially for women. Foo and Seow (2005) mentioned that although Singapore Women Charter has modified for wider protection for women, female family violence has remained largely unchanged and unreported. Those who attended the counselling programmes often changed their contact numbers and this has made the continual and monitoring of counselling work difficult (Ministry of Coummunity Development, Youth and Sports, 2009).
Generally, every member in the family are affected when family violence occurs. The habits that they adopted to deal with such stress are harmful and even suicidal. These effects are viciously recycling and everlasting to themselves and others (Travis, Auchter & Thomas, 1998).
A good summary of effects of family violence can be found in a speech that was addressed to the National Family Violence Networking Symposium in 2008 by Dr Vivian Balakrishnan (Balakrishnan, 2008). “Family violence has a terrible impact on children regardless of whether these children are direct victims of abuse or innocent witness of the violence at home... Victims of child abuse or neglect often suffer from low self-esteem and feelings of betrayal that may lead to anger, hostility, distrust of others and under-achievements in school and in their work life... and subsequent criminal behaviour...”
Balakrishnan, V. (2008). Retrieved 3 April, 2011 from http://app1.mcys.gov.sg/PressRoom/TheNationalFamilyViolenceNetworkingSymposium.aspx
Barnett, O. W. , Miller-Perrin, C. L. & Perrin, R. D. (2011). (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, California: Sage Publications.
Foo, C. L. & Seow, E. (2005). Domestic violence in Singapore: a ten year comparison of victim profile. 69-73. Retrieved 16 April, 2011 from http://www.sma.org.sg/smj/4602/4602a2.pdf
(2003). Retrieved 16 April, 2011 from http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/ncfv-cnivf/pdfs/fv-healtheffects_e.pdf
Hines, D. A. & Malley-Morrison, K. (2001). Psychological effects of partner abuse against men: A neglected research area. 75-85. Retrieved 16 April, 2011 from http://www.aardvarc.org/dv/malevictims.shtml
Lupri, E. & Gradin, E. (2004). Retrieved 16 April, 2011 from http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/ncfv-cnivf/maleabus-eng.php
Ministry of Community Development, Youth and Sports. (2009). Retrieved 16 April, 2011 from http://app1.mcys.gov.sg/Portals/0/Summary/research/Protecting%20Families%20from%20Violence_The%20Singapore%20Experience_2009.pdf
Russell, P. Dobash, R. & Dobash, E. (2004). Women’s violence to men in intimate relationships; working on a puzzle. 324. Retrieved 16 April, 2011 from http://www.aardvarc.org/dv/malevictims.shtml
Sigelman, C. K. & Rider, E. A. (2009). (6th ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth/Gengage Learning.
Travis, J., Auchter, B. & Thomas, J. (1998). Retrieved 16 April, 2011 from http://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles/171666.pdf
Running head: SOCIAL COGNITIVE THEORY: LEARNING AND DEVELOPEMNT prefix = o ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office" /
PSY 207 TMA01: Social cognitive theory: learning and development and its criticism
Siew Mun Choy
How learning and development take place in social cognitive theory and its criticism.
Social Cognitive Theory is a theory of learning that focuses on changes in behaviour that result from observing others and is emerged from work pioneered by Albert Bandura (Bandura 1986, 1997, 2001 as cited in Eggen & Kauchak, 2010, p. 180).
Development can be seen as the progress from birth to death. Some belief development in stages but Bandura sees development as continuous, occurring gradually through a lifetime of learning (Sigelman & Rider, 2009, p.44).
According to Bandura(Eggen & Kauchak, 2010; Sigelman & Rider, 2009) , people learn and imitate others by watching others, reading about what other people do and by making general observations of the world. Observational learning is the most important mechanism through which human behaviour change (Sigelman & Rider, 2009).
Observational learning is a more cognitive form of learning as it requires the learner to pay attention, construct and remember mental representation of what they saw, retrieve these representations from memory later and use them to guide behaviour (Sigelman & Rider, 2009, p.42- 43).
The learner’s attention is affected by the model’s competence and high status. There must also be a presence of commonalities between the learner and the model(Eggen & Kauchak, 2010) .
Albert Bandura’s ‘Bobo’ doll experiment demonstrated how the group of children have learnt to behave with a bubo doll after having observed what the adult do to the bubo doll in the video (Sigelman & Rider, 2009). The bubo doll is toy that the children know and like, thus they were able to observe and reproduce the behaviour.
The learner’s ability to reproduce the observed behaviour also depends on whether the learner has any prior knowledge of the subject or topic before the observation make sense and useful to the learner (Sigelman & Rider, 2009). If the learner does not know how to cycle but has observed a bicycle race, he would not be able to cycle. Likewise, if the learner knows how to cycle and after watching the bicycle race, he would be able to perfect his skills with practices (self-efficacy) and even perform some tricks that he has observed earlier.
Self-efficacy (Eggen & Kauchak, 2010; Sigelman & Rider, 2009) is seen in schools where children learn from observing how teachers solving mathematical sum or carrying out chemical experiments (Eggen & Kauchak, 2010; Berk, 2003).
Many curriculums in schools today, especially in pre-schools, are structured and designed for the children to learn through observation, exploration and facilitation from teachers (Berk, 2003). As children grown, they would mature and have better cognitive ability to observation, retain information and reproduce the behaviour that they have observed (Sigelman & Rider, 2009).
If according to how Bandura has stated about learning, children with developmental disorder would not able to learn.
People diagnosed with developmental disorder such as ASD, ADHA and learning disabilities (Barlow & Durand, 2009) would not be able to observe others. This group of people have impairment in social interactions and communication and restricted behaviour, interests and activities (American Psychiatric Association, 2000 as cited in Barlow & Durand, 2009, p. 512). All these factors will affect this group of children to perform observational learning. Their lack of communication skill and social interaction prevented them to perform any form of observational learning (Barlow & Durand, 2009). However, people with developmental disorder do learn with intervention programs but definitely not by observations only.
Likewise a child cannot learn to write by just observing how his parents or teachers write. Writing skill requires a complex body mechanism such as the co-ordination between the eye, the hand and fine motor skill of the learner (Berk, 2003) which is beyond observation. Early childhood educators believe that a child has to be in the correct developmental stage (Berk, 2003) to be both physical and cognitively ready for writing.
All the learning would not be demonstrated if there is no reason for doing it. Bandura mentioned that past experiences, incentives and vicarious reinforcement would actually motivate the learner to reproduce what the learner has learnt. Similarly, past punishment and threats and vicarious punishment would deter the learner to demonstrate what he has learnt (Eggen & Kauchak, 2010; Sigelman & Rider, 2009).
Another group of children who watched the ‘Bobo’ doll experiment (Sigelman & Rider, 2009) was shown that the adult received punishment for her actions. The children are not willing to carry out what they have learnt because they are aware of the consequences of the act. According to Bandura, this is vicarious learning (Eggen & Kauchak, 2010; Sigelman & Rider, 2009) and this influence how the learner learns.
However, according to the developmental milestones in early childhood (Berk, 2003), children at a young age are ego-centric and are not able to conserve. Children are not able to see things from others perspective and they believe what they see (Berk, 2003).
If the same video of “Bobo” doll experiment is shown to adults, they would most probably not demonstrate the behaviour. This is because adult has better cognitive skills; they can conserve and are no longer ego-centric (Berk, 2003). They are able to see from other perspective and aware of social norms in the environment they live in. They would know that such action would be deeming as not suitable in normal social context.
In recent years, Bandura has emphasised the concept of human agency (Sigelman & Rider, 2009) into his learning theory.
Bandura suggested self-observation, judgement and self-response are forms of self-regulation (Eggen & Kauchak, 2010). As human beings, they are able to look at themselves and follow traditional standards such as etiquettes. And when they compare their standard, they are able to reward or punishing themselves when they do well or badly (Eggen & Kauchak, 2010; Sigelman & Rider, 2009). People practice self-regulations, to influence environment and behaviour (Eggen & Kauchak, 2010).
An observer could pick up smoking by observing his peers; however, this individual may choose not to do so because of her social consciousness and responsibilities; knowing that smoking is harmful to self, people and the environment (Eggen & Kauchak, 2010).
However, it is not possible to quit smoking by observation and self-regulation. Quitting smoking needs good intervention programs such as self-modification programs (Corey, 2009) to help; which is beyond simple observation and self-regulation.
Bandura sees the reciprocal relationship between the environment and people (Eggen & Kauchak, 2010). Some researchers have argued that the theory lacks attention to biological or hormonal processes (Halson, 2003).
According to Halson (Halson, 2003) behavioural changes could due to changes in biological factors. A change in hormones of a person could be due to stress, depression, osteoporosis and weight gain such as women who experiences menopause or even athletes who are undergoing extreme training. Such biological changes in the body could trigger emotional behaviour which has little to do with observation. For example, jealousy can drive one to behave inappropriately (Niedenthal, Krauth-Gruber & Ric, 2006, Halson, 2003).
Social Cognitive Theory is applied today in many different areas such as mass media, public health, education and even marketing (Eggen & Kauchak, 2009). An example is the use of celebrities to endorse certain products to certain demographics.
Social cognitive theory is an approach that is a break from traditional theories by proposing that cognitive factors are central to human functioning and that learning can occur in the absence of direct reinforcement (Sigelman & Rider, 2009). Learning can occur simply through observation of models (Eggen & Kauchak, 2010; Sigelman & Rider, 2009) .
Probably of most significance is the criticism that the theory is not unified. Concepts and processes such as observational learning and self-efficacy have been highly researched but there has been little explanation about the relationship among the concepts(Eggen & Kauchak, 2010; Sigelman & Rider, 2009) .
Barlow, D. H. & Durand, V. M. (2009). (5th ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth/Gengage Learning.
Berk, L. E. (2003). (6th ed.). Boston: Pearson Education.
Corey, G. (2009). . (8th ed.). Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole/Gengage Learning.
Eggen, P. & Kauchak, D. (2010). (8th ed.). New Jersey: Pearson Education.
Halson, S. L. (2003). Retrieved 27 February, 2011 from http://eprints.qut.edu.au/15790/
Niedenthal, P., Krauth-Gruber, S., & Ric, F. (2006). New York: Psychology Press.
Sigelman, C. K. & Rider, E. A. (2009). (6th ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth/Gengage Learning.
|Languages Spoken||english, cantonese, mandarin|
|Member Since||November 19, 2008|
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