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munchoy siew

Who has the binoculars???

who has the binoculars???read the sentence...the spy saw the man with the binoculars  if you break the sentence into segmentsthe spy saw the man    with the binocularsandthe spy saw    the man with the binoculars then you will have intrepretedthe spy with the binoculars is looking at a man (ist segmented sentence)andthe spy is looking at the man with the binoculars (2nd segmented sentence) what you have experienced is understanding a sentence as part of cognitive psychology. isn't it fun!!!      

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a basic surviving skill learnt

well, the very basic surviving skill should be what???

i recently took a intense first aid course. for three consecutives nights from half past six to ten in the evening after a tiring day in school, its really a very stressful course. lucky for me, the instructor is an experienced pharamedict, he took up by theroy what we should do and by practice what we could do...

about first aid course... the most interesting part is the cpr - cardio-pulmonary resuscitation, best known as the kiss of life...

when the instructor told us that we must do this and that,,, and he explained cardio is for heart, pulmonary is for lungs, resuscitation is to revive... in lay man's term its bring air to the lungs and make the heart pump blood to the brain, cause any part of your body could die but you still can survive, but not for the brain, as long as the brain is out of oxygen for 4 to 6 mins... you are dead!!!

so doing cpr is fun, er except for the fact that you must do it mouth to mouth...

wrong, what happens if the person is bleeding for the mouht, do you still do mouth to mouth...

no...no...no...

cpr is not necessary to do it mouth to mouth, the most important thing is to clear the air way, and then check for breadthing, if there is no breadthing, then cpr is required... you just have to till the head back a bit to make sure the air way is clear and then use your hand and pump the lower part of the heart 30 compression followed and check for breadthing again...

if you are really keen , go to take a first aid course, they will teach the proper and correct way to do cpr, not as those shown on tv and dramas...

i realise that ya, the basic surviving skill one has to be equiped with is to be able to perform first aid if needed, to safe lives and yourselves...

the other interesting factor learnt in this first aid course is the injury mechanisim, after this every one of us are professional killers, we could kill anyone easily once we understand the injury mechanisms, of course we are not out to kill... but knowing the injury mechanism, we actually able to protect ourselves and our loves ones and also prevention is better than cure.

learning the first aid course also highlighted to us some changes in technology for saving lives... there is now available to anyone who is taught to use the AED, and this machine gives a better change of reviving the heart to twenty percent that is more than twelve percent than that done by cpr... interesting... there are so much to share... so go ahead and learn a first aid course to know the excitment that i felt and have enjoyed.

 

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my bad experience in Bangkok

to start off it was a long waited holiday for me... been looking forward to it.  bangkok... here i come...

the things there are cheap, much cheaper than in Singapore, but however, the living standard there is not so well...

the first is staying at a 3 star hotel... let me advice you, if anyone should want to stay in a 3 stars hotel, make sure its not old,,. the one i was staying is well 25 yeears old...

the maintanence of many things were bad...

the worst its... i saw two centerpede... the posionous kind in the bathroom... the first one was at the toilet bowl and i wonder how it got there in the first place, lucky enough for me, my niece just flushed it down,,, the second centerpede was at the bath tub... before i want to take a bath, i was getting ready, u know what i mean, and the water is running, at then i saw this more than 10cm centerpede crawling out of the pipe hole ... i was still wearing my glasses so i can see very clearly... omg... i shouted for my niece and well they came running to me and shouting and this time busy taking photographs and lucky i was not naked yet lol.

see photos...

the second bad experience this round was that the seller or vendors are not honest... they see that i was a tourist and start to quote rediculous prices... and the best thing is having learnt some simple thai words helps because the sales girls can shout in thai like 2 piece at whole sale price (purchase two piece at a discount price) and when i asked them how much they can say three piece purchase at whole sale price... haha...

sure thing is there is no place better than home but the process and the experience is good and enjoyable and fruitful.

 

 

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effects of family violence and interventions in Singapore

Running head: EFFECTS AND INTERVENTIONS FOR FAMILY VIOLENCE. prefix = o ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office" /

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

PSY207 TMA02: Family violence with its effects and interventions

Siew Mun Choy

 

 

Effects and interventions for family violence.

According to a report by National Clearinghouse on Family Violence (Health effects of family violence, 2003), family violence happens when one family member inflicts harm to another family member through means of verbal abuse, threats or causing physical injury to another member in the family. Family violence ranges from physical, emotional, financial, sexual abuse to negligence. Victims often suffered lasting effects in physical, emotional and psychological (Barnett, Miller-Perrin & Perrin, 2011).

According to Barnett, Miller-Perrin and Perrin (2011), family violence affects every member in the family. The abused are often dominated by the abuser. The abused are often isolated thus making it difficult for the victim to get outside help. The abused also depend on the abuser financially, and emotionally. Victims tend to live in fear and yet dare not break away from the violence. Emotionally and psychologically, victims often felt helpless, confused, and anxious which resulted in having low self-esteem. Sometimes, thoughts of suicide do cross their minds and in severe cases, the abused can get badly injured, and end up losing their lives (Barnett, Miller-Perrin & Perrin, 2011).

The effects of family violence are endless. In the report by National Clearinghouse on Family Violence (Health effects on family violence, 2003), women who were physical and sexual abused gave birth to babies with low birth weight which can be linked to infant and child illness such as disabilities and death. Babies may suffer harm in the uterus when pregnant mother is punched in the stomach. Pregnant mothers who suffered psychologically can develop alcohol or drinking addictions. Alcohol addictive can affect babies to develop fetal alcohol syndrome and fetal alcohol effects in children and eating disorder were found to be more likely to develop osteoporosis and complications during pregnancy.

Beside females, males can be victims in family violence. The abused men are equally affected emotionally, physically and psychologically as females. They are upset, confused, hurt and disappointed and have low self-esteem (Hines & Malley-Morrison, 2001; Russell, Dobash & Dobash, 2004). According to Lupri and Gardin (2004) unlike females who reported family violence and received readily available assistances, men often faced with disbelief as they have to struggle against social norms and customs of their masculine image of being self-reliant and independent, tougher, bigger and stronger than women (Hines & Malley-Morrison, 2001; Russell, Dobash & Dobash, 2004).

The lives of abused children are affected with physical injuries and they too suffer emotionally and psychologically that can affect their school performances and social relationships. According to the report by National Clearinghouse on Family Violence of Canada Government (Health effects of family violence, 2003), children are at risk of physical injury and even death when they may be accidentally struck during physical violent confrontation between parents and they can suffered permanent damage to the development of the brain if maltreatment occurs in the early years of childhood development (Cicchetti & Valentino, 2006; Margolin & Gordis, 2006 as cited in Sigelman & Rider, 2009).

Malinosky-Rummell and Hansen, (1993 as cited in Sigelman & Rider, 2009) and Shonk and Cicchetti (2001 as cited in Sielgman & Rider, 2009), mentioned that abused children suffer intellectual deficit. They also have IQ scores of eight points lower than average children who were not exposed to domestic violence (Koenen et al, 2003 as cited in Sigelman & Rider, 2009).

Besides cognitively affected, behavioural problems are common among these children. They tend to be aggressive and emotionally affected as they often faced rejection by their peers because of their behaviour (Flores, Cicchetti and Rogosch (2006 as cited in Sigelman & Rider, 2009). Reynolds (2003 as cited in Sigelman & Rider, 2009) also noticed that these children are emotionally and over sensitive and often perceived anger in their peers when there is actually none. Margolin and Gordis (2000 as cited in Sigelman & Rider, 2009) stated that abused children showed physical violence not only when in the family, but also outside the family and they tend to have higher chances of developing psychological problems such as depression and anxiety. Main and George (1985 as cited in Sigelman & Rider, 2009) discovered that children who are targets of family violence are lacking in social and emotional development as well. They are not able to show empathy to the distress of others. Abused toddlers express anger and attack any crying children. According to Sternberg et al. (2006 as cited in Sigelman & Rider, 2009), children who only witness family violence also display as many behaviour problems as those who are targets of family violence.

Family violence often causes teenagers to leave their homes at an early age. These teenagers often lack in social and financial support. They ended up living in neighbourhood that is unsafe with high crime rates, prostitution, and unprotected sex. They also tend to resort to violence as a form of resolution which they are familiar with. This resulted with high society cost (Travis, Auchter & Thomas, 1998).

Old aged people can also suffer family violence that can affect them physically, emotionally and psychologically. Often faced with empty nest (Sigelman & Rider, 2009), weaker in their physical health, they may be dependent on other family members for their well-being. The effects of family violence are often worsening if these elders are financially unsound (Barnett, Miller-Perrin & Perrin, 2011).

Although family violence are common and affect family lives, victims of family violence are not alone in dealing with violence at home. In Singapore, a multi-disciplinary framework termed “Many Helping Hands” approach underlines the social service delivery mechanism and espouses the principle that the various agencies including the government, the community and families to work together (Ministry of Community Development, Youth and Sports, 2009).

Family Service Centres (FSCs) provide counselling and advice on safety plans, financial assistance, crisis shelters and advice on type of community resources for members who are in danger of family violence. These service centres are of easy access and often found within the neighbourhood (Ministry of Community Development, Youth and Sports, 2009).

Assistance to victims of family violence also comes from the Family and Juvenile Court which has a Family Protection and Transformation Unit to help victims to seek legal helps.  The Family court also sent abusers to seek professional help from counsellor through the Mandatory Counselling Programme (Ministry of Community Development, Youth and Sports, 2009). Such empowerment programme helps the victims to take steps to end violence in their lives and to educate the abuser of better emotional and behavioural control.

Help are also provided in schools, hospitals and clinics. When teachers or doctors noticed or suspected family violence, the victims would be referred to FSCs or medical social worker for further assistance and counselling. There are also more public educational programmes to provide more awareness for family violence (Ministry of Community Development, Youth and Sports, 2009).

However, family violence is often unreported and help are only available after damages occurred (Barnett, Miller-Perrin & Perrin, 2011). Despite the roles of females have changed and evolved over the years (Sigelman & Rider, 2009), there is not much change in the profile of victims especially for women. Foo and Seow (2005) mentioned that although Singapore Women Charter has modified for wider protection for women, female family violence has remained largely unchanged and unreported. Those who attended the counselling programmes often changed their contact numbers and this has made the continual and monitoring of counselling work difficult (Ministry of Coummunity Development, Youth and Sports, 2009).

Generally, every member in the family are affected when family violence occurs. The habits that they adopted to deal with such stress are harmful and even suicidal. These effects are viciously recycling and everlasting to themselves and others (Travis, Auchter & Thomas, 1998).

A good summary of effects of family violence can be found in a speech that was addressed to the National Family Violence Networking Symposium in 2008 by Dr Vivian Balakrishnan (Balakrishnan, 2008). “Family violence has a terrible impact on children regardless of whether these children are direct victims of abuse or innocent witness of the violence at home... Victims of child abuse or neglect often suffer from low self-esteem and feelings of betrayal that may lead to anger, hostility, distrust of others and under-achievements in school and in their work life... and subsequent criminal behaviour...”

(1379 words)

References

Balakrishnan, V. (2008). Retrieved 3 April, 2011 from http://app1.mcys.gov.sg/PressRoom/TheNationalFamilyViolenceNetworkingSymposium.aspx

Barnett, O. W. , Miller-Perrin, C. L. & Perrin, R. D. (2011). (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, California: Sage Publications.

Foo, C. L. & Seow, E. (2005). Domestic violence in Singapore: a ten year comparison of victim profile. 69-73. Retrieved 16 April, 2011 from http://www.sma.org.sg/smj/4602/4602a2.pdf

(2003). Retrieved 16 April, 2011 from http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/ncfv-cnivf/pdfs/fv-healtheffects_e.pdf

Hines, D. A. & Malley-Morrison, K. (2001). Psychological effects of partner abuse against men: A neglected research area. 75-85. Retrieved 16 April, 2011 from http://www.aardvarc.org/dv/malevictims.shtml

Lupri, E. & Gradin, E. (2004). Retrieved 16 April, 2011 from http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/ncfv-cnivf/maleabus-eng.php

Ministry of Community Development, Youth and Sports. (2009). Retrieved 16 April, 2011 from http://app1.mcys.gov.sg/Portals/0/Summary/research/Protecting%20Families%20from%20Violence_The%20Singapore%20Experience_2009.pdf

Russell, P. Dobash, R. & Dobash, E. (2004). Women’s violence to men in intimate relationships; working on a puzzle. 324. Retrieved 16 April, 2011 from http://www.aardvarc.org/dv/malevictims.shtml

Sigelman, C. K. & Rider, E. A. (2009). (6th ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth/Gengage Learning.

Travis, J., Auchter, B. & Thomas, J. (1998). Retrieved 16 April, 2011 from http://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles/171666.pdf

 

 

 

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another write up on social cognitive theory

Running head: SOCIAL COGNITIVE THEORY: LEARNING AND DEVELOPEMNT prefix = o ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office" /

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

PSY 207 TMA01: Social cognitive theory: learning and development and its criticism

Siew Mun Choy

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

                                    

How learning and development take place in social cognitive theory and its criticism.

Social Cognitive Theory is a theory of learning that focuses on changes in behaviour that result from observing others and is emerged from work pioneered by Albert Bandura (Bandura 1986, 1997, 2001 as cited in Eggen & Kauchak, 2010, p. 180).

Development can be seen as the progress from birth to death. Some belief development in stages but Bandura sees development as continuous, occurring gradually through a lifetime of learning (Sigelman & Rider, 2009, p.44).

According to Bandura(Eggen & Kauchak, 2010; Sigelman & Rider, 2009) , people learn and imitate others by watching others, reading about what other people do and by making general observations of the world. Observational learning is the most important mechanism through which human behaviour change (Sigelman & Rider, 2009).

Observational learning is a more cognitive form of learning as it requires the learner to pay attention, construct and remember mental representation of what they saw, retrieve these representations from memory later and use them to guide behaviour (Sigelman & Rider, 2009, p.42- 43).

The learner’s attention is affected by the model’s competence and high status. There must also be a presence of commonalities between the learner and the model(Eggen & Kauchak, 2010) .

Albert Bandura’s ‘Bobo’ doll experiment demonstrated how the group of children have learnt to behave with a bubo doll after having observed what the adult do to the bubo doll in the video (Sigelman & Rider, 2009). The bubo doll is toy that the children know and like, thus they were able to observe and reproduce the behaviour.

The learner’s ability to reproduce the observed behaviour also depends on whether the learner has any prior knowledge of the subject or topic before the observation make sense and useful to the learner (Sigelman & Rider, 2009). If the learner does not know how to cycle but has observed a bicycle race, he would not be able to cycle. Likewise, if the learner knows how to cycle and after watching the bicycle race, he would be able to perfect his skills with practices (self-efficacy) and even perform some tricks that he has observed earlier.

Self-efficacy (Eggen & Kauchak, 2010; Sigelman & Rider, 2009) is seen in schools where children learn from observing how teachers solving mathematical sum or carrying out chemical experiments (Eggen & Kauchak, 2010; Berk, 2003).

Many curriculums in schools today, especially in pre-schools, are structured and designed for the children to learn through observation, exploration and facilitation from teachers (Berk, 2003). As children grown, they would mature and have better cognitive ability to observation, retain information and reproduce the behaviour that they have observed (Sigelman & Rider, 2009).

If according to how Bandura has stated about learning, children with developmental disorder would not able to learn.

People diagnosed with developmental disorder such as ASD, ADHA and learning disabilities (Barlow & Durand, 2009) would not be able to observe others. This group of people have impairment in social interactions and communication and restricted behaviour, interests and activities (American Psychiatric Association, 2000 as cited in Barlow & Durand, 2009, p. 512). All these factors will affect this group of children to perform observational learning. Their lack of communication skill and social interaction prevented them to perform any form of observational learning (Barlow & Durand, 2009). However, people with developmental disorder do learn with intervention programs but definitely not by observations only.  

Likewise a child cannot learn to write by just observing how his parents or teachers write. Writing skill requires a complex body mechanism such as the co-ordination between the eye, the hand and fine motor skill of the learner (Berk, 2003) which is beyond observation. Early childhood educators believe that a child has to be in the correct developmental stage (Berk, 2003) to be both physical and cognitively ready for writing.

All the learning would not be demonstrated if there is no reason for doing it. Bandura mentioned that past experiences, incentives and vicarious reinforcement would actually motivate the learner to reproduce what the learner has learnt. Similarly, past punishment and threats and vicarious punishment would deter the learner to demonstrate what he has learnt (Eggen & Kauchak, 2010; Sigelman & Rider, 2009).

Another group of children who watched the ‘Bobo’ doll experiment (Sigelman & Rider, 2009) was shown that the adult received punishment for her actions. The children are not willing to carry out what they have learnt because they are aware of the consequences of the act. According to Bandura, this is vicarious learning (Eggen & Kauchak, 2010; Sigelman & Rider, 2009) and this influence how the learner learns.

However, according to the developmental milestones in early childhood (Berk, 2003), children at a young age are ego-centric and are not able to conserve. Children are not able to see things from others perspective and they believe what they see (Berk, 2003).

If the same video of “Bobo” doll experiment is shown to adults, they would most probably not demonstrate the behaviour. This is because adult has better cognitive skills; they can conserve and are no longer ego-centric (Berk, 2003). They are able to see from other perspective and aware of social norms in the environment they live in. They would know that such action would be deeming as not suitable in normal social context.

In recent years, Bandura has emphasised the concept of human agency (Sigelman & Rider, 2009) into his learning theory.

Bandura suggested self-observation, judgement and self-response are forms of self-regulation (Eggen & Kauchak, 2010). As human beings, they are able to look at themselves and follow traditional standards such as etiquettes. And when they compare their standard, they are able to reward or punishing themselves when they do well or badly (Eggen & Kauchak, 2010; Sigelman & Rider, 2009). People practice self-regulations, to influence environment and behaviour (Eggen & Kauchak, 2010).

An observer could pick up smoking by observing his peers; however, this individual may choose not to do so because of her social consciousness and responsibilities; knowing that smoking is harmful to self, people and the environment (Eggen & Kauchak, 2010).

However, it is not possible to quit smoking by observation and self-regulation. Quitting smoking needs good intervention programs such as self-modification programs (Corey, 2009) to help; which is beyond simple observation and self-regulation.

Bandura sees the reciprocal relationship between the environment and people (Eggen & Kauchak, 2010). Some researchers have argued that the theory lacks attention to biological or hormonal processes (Halson, 2003).

According to Halson (Halson, 2003) behavioural changes could due to changes in biological factors. A change in hormones of a person could be due to stress, depression, osteoporosis and weight gain such as women who experiences menopause or even athletes who are undergoing extreme training. Such biological changes in the body could trigger emotional behaviour which has little to do with observation. For example, jealousy can drive one to behave inappropriately (Niedenthal, Krauth-Gruber & Ric, 2006, Halson, 2003).

Social Cognitive Theory is applied today in many different areas such as mass media, public health, education and even marketing (Eggen & Kauchak, 2009). An example is the use of celebrities to endorse certain products to certain demographics.

Social cognitive theory is an approach that is a break from traditional theories by proposing that cognitive factors are central to human functioning and that learning can occur in the absence of direct reinforcement (Sigelman & Rider, 2009). Learning can occur simply through observation of models (Eggen & Kauchak, 2010; Sigelman & Rider, 2009) .

Probably of most significance is the criticism that the theory is not unified. Concepts and processes such as observational learning and self-efficacy have been highly researched but there has been little explanation about the relationship among the concepts(Eggen & Kauchak, 2010; Sigelman & Rider, 2009) .

(1297 words)

References

Barlow, D. H. & Durand, V. M. (2009). (5th ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth/Gengage Learning.

Berk, L. E. (2003). (6th ed.). Boston: Pearson Education.

Corey, G. (2009). . (8th ed.). Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole/Gengage Learning.

Eggen, P. & Kauchak, D. (2010). (8th ed.). New Jersey: Pearson Education.

Halson, S. L. (2003). Retrieved 27 February, 2011 from http://eprints.qut.edu.au/15790/

Niedenthal, P., Krauth-Gruber, S., & Ric, F. (2006). New York: Psychology Press.

Sigelman, C. K. & Rider, E. A. (2009). (6th ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth/Gengage Learning.  

 

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KOHLBERG’S THEORY OF MORAL DEVELOPMENT

i actually lost my copy of the original of this essay. this one is the marked copy of my essay.

so whoever read this can have a feel of how a marked essay at degree level looked like...

Running head: Kohlberg’s theory of moral developmentprefix = o ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office" /

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

PSY255: Principles of Learning TMA01

Siew Mun Choy

TMA01 for Principles of Learning: Kohlberg’s theory of moral development

 

 

According to Kohlberg, there is no right or wrong reasoning for dealing with moral issues but exists in stages (Gibbs, 2009).

Kohlberg’s theory of moral development is a stage theory that consists of three levels with two stages at each level (Eggen & Kauchak, 2010).

The first level is Preconventional Ethics and can be seen in children up to ten years old. The two stages are stage one, punishment-obedience and stage two, market exchange (Eggen & Kauchak, 2010).

The second level is Conventional Ethics and is common for people between ten to twenty years old. The moral decisions are normally conformed to rules and conventions of the society. The two stages are Interpersonal Harmony and Law and Order (Eggen & Kauchak, 2010).

The third level is Postconventional Ethics and is common for adults who are older than twenty years old but not in all individuals. Stage five is Social Contract and stage six is Universal Principles (Eggen & Kauchak, 2010).✓

As Leo has stolen the drug from the pharmacist (TMA01, 2011), the moral reasons for and against stealing and the underlying structure of moral thoughts in Kohlberg’s theory are being explored (Eggen & Kauchak, 2010).

Kohlberg’s stage one[N1] is similar to Piaget’s first stage of moral thought (Eggen & Kauchak, 2010). Children only know that rules are fixed and to be obeyed and cannot be changed. To them, it is against the law and it is bad to steal. The consequences would be punishment (Eggen & Kauchak, 2010; Gibbs, 2009).

Leo would not steal the drug if he is at stage one of moral reasoning. He knows that he would be punished by law if he steals (Gibbs, 2009).[N2] 

In stage two, children realised that there are different angles to look at the rules that are handed down by the authorities. They see the acts as reciprocity; a fair exchange. Here, the children will reason that it is wrong to steal because they want to avoid punishment (G[N3] ibbs, 2009).

Leo would not steal as he wants to avoid punishment (Eggen & Kauchak, 2010). On the other hand, Leo may reason to steal if he looks at another angle that there is a fair exchange for his actions. His wife may return the favour some day. Adjacently, Leo feels that the pharmacist is making an unfair deal (Gibbs, 2009).

This is the correct explanation.  Hence, you should leave out the previous sentence.

According to Kohlberg, children at stage three[N4] (interpersonal harmony) would be entering into their teens. At this stage, the teens are mature to see that morality  is more than simple deals. They believe that people should live up to others’ expectations and decisions are based on loyalty and social conventions (Eggen & Kauchak, 2010).✓

In Leo’s scenario (TMA01, 2011), the pharmacist was bad, selfish and greedy. Leo is a good man for wanting to save his wife and it was his duty as a husband to save his wife. Leo would steal the drug at this stage as he is living up to the expectations of others and those shared by the entire community (Gibbs, 2009).✓

At stage four,(law and order) people would consider society as a whole. They would want to maintain law and order by following the rules and doing one’s duty and respecting the authority (Eggen & Kauchak, 2010).✓

Many would understand the good intention of Leo stealing, but would not approve the theft as breaking the laws would mean causing chaos to the society (Gibbs, 2009). Leo would not steal the drug as he would want to maintain law and order in the society and he respects the authority.✓

In stage five,(social contract) rules and laws are important for maintaining society but members of the society should agree upon the standards as all of them would be working towards the conception of a good society. They would need to protect individual’s rights and at the same time settle dispute through democratic processes (Eggen & Kauchak, 2010; Gibbs, 2009).

According to Kohlberg, the society would not favour breaking laws as the laws are social contract that all of them have agreed to uphold. However, Leo’s wife has the right to live and this moral right has to be protected. Furthermore, it is also a husband’s duty to save his wife and the fact that her life is in danger transcends every standard for judging Leo’s action. Life is more important than property (Gibbs, 2009). Therefore, at this stage, Leo would reason to steal the drug.✓

In stage six, the universal principles are self-regulated. The principles of justice would guide decisions based on an equal respect for all and people follow internalised principles of justice even if they could conflict with laws and rules (Eggen & Kauchak, 2010).✓

Leo’s internalised principles of justice (Eggen & Kaucak, 2010), his duty as a husband and his wife’s rights to live would justify his decision to steal. Furthermore, the society would agreed that it is fair that Leo’s wife should live as the drug could cure her and Leo has agreed to pay the pharmacist later (TMA01, 2011).✓

At stage one, children think of what is right as what the authority say is right. Doing the right thing is by obeying the authority (Eggen & Kauchak, 2010; Gibbs, 2009).✓

At stage two, children see that there are different perspectives to any problems. As everything is relative, it would be good to pursue one’s own interest and make deals and exchange favours with others (Eggen & Kauchak, 2010; Gibbs, 2009).✓

At stage three and four, young people think on a larger perspective. They see conventional society with its values, norms and experiences. At stage three, people see a good person as someone who has helpful motives towards people who he or she is close to.✓At stage four, these concerns shifted towards obeying laws to maintain society as a whole (Eggen & Kauchak, 2010; Gibbs, 2009).✓

At stage five and six, people are less concerned with maintaining society for its own sake but more with principles and values that make a good society.✓Stage five would have emphasizes basic rights and the democratic processes that give equal rights to each individual, and stage six defines the principles be which agreement will be more just (Eggen & Kauchak, 2010; Gibbs, 2009).✓

Even though Leo has broken into the pharmacist’s store and stolen the drug (Question TMA01), we could see that each moral decision is different at each stage of Kohlberg’s theory of moral development (Eggen & Kauchak, 2010).  ✓

Word count: 1067 words

 

References

Berk, L. E. (2003). . (6th ed.). USA:[N5] Pearson Education, Inc.

Eggen, P. & Kauchak, D. (2010). (8th ed.). USA[N6] : Pearson Education, Inc.

Gibbs, J. C. (2009). . (2nd ed.). UK[N7] : Penguin Academic.

Sigelman, C. K. & Rider, E. A. (2009). . (6th ed.). Canada[N8] : Wadsworth.

         You have done quite a lot of your own reading and have successfully applied these into answering this question. Keep it up!

Content:  67

Eng:         4

Ref:          4

Total:      75


 [N1]Name the stage here.

 [N2]An individual at this stage could also conclude that Leo should steal if he is unlikely to be caught and punished.

 [N3]This argument is similar to the earlier one and hence is not the explanation for Stage 2.

 [N4]Name the stage here.

 [N5]Give city and not country here. Refer to APA guide.

 [N6]Refer to Comment [N5]

 [N7]Refer to Comment [N5]

 [N8]Refer to Comment [N5]

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Social cognitive theory

prefix = o ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office" / 

Running head: SOCIAL COGNITIVE THEORY

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

PSY 255 TMA02: SCT – differences from Behaviourism and its criticisms

Siew Mun Choy

PI No: J0901753

UNISIM

 

 

 

 

Social Cognitive Theory and its difference from Behaviourism

After Mary saw her idol’s performance; she practices the dance steps and acquired the dance steps which she does not process before observing the model.  

At a concert, when John saw someone stands to applaud, he and the other audience followed (Eggen & Kauchak, 2010).

Peter’s classmate was punished for being late for school. The rest of the schoolmates took the cue and dare not be late for school.

Social Cognitive Theory is a theory of learning that focuses on changes in behaviour that result from observing others and is emerged from work pioneered by Albert Bandura (Bandura 1986, 1997, 2001 as cited in Eggen & Kauchak, 2010, p. 180).

People learn by observing and imitating others and modelling is the main concept to understand Social Cognitive Theory (SCT) (Eggen & Kauchak, 2010).

To be convinced to learn, a model’s effectiveness is important (Eggen & Kauchak, 2010).

Mary’s idol showed competence and has high status and she has found commonalities between herself and her idol. The effectiveness of her idol has influenced Mary to learn a new behaviour which she does not display before observing her idol (Eggen & Kauchak).  

An individual must be aware of the consequences of the behaviour and know what behaviour is being reinforced or punished. The punishment for Peter’s schoolmate acts as a reinforcer and is a nonoccurrence of expected consequences (Bandura, 1986 as cited in Eggen & Kauchak, 2010).

Peter experienced vicarious learning (Eggen & Kauchak, 2010) when he saw the punishment.

The vicarious learning and nonoccurrence of expected consequences lead to changed inhibition. The punishment has strengthened the inhibition about breaking a school rule. However, as Peter and his schoolmates expect to be punished for breaking the school rules, and if they break rules and are not punished, the inhibition of breaking a school rule would be weakened and students are more likely to break rules in future (Eggen & Kauachak, 2010).

The reinforcement for breaking the school rule has also facilitated others’ behaviours (Eggen & Kauachak, 2010). Peter’s schoolmates have observed the punishment and were aware of the consequences for breaking a rule.  

Therefore, behaviour learnt through modelling can affect cognition and emotions of the learner (Eggen & Kauchak, 2010).

However, people do not always apply what they have learnt and the change in behaviour is not shown immediately (Eggen & Kauchak, 2010). Peter and his schoolmates may still break school rules in the future however the awareness of the consequences may also deter them from breaking school rules.

SCT suggested reciprocal relationship between people and the environment. People are both influenced by and actively produce changes to their surrounding (reciprocal causation) (Eggen & Kauchak, 2010). The punishment and the change in behaviour of Peter and his schoolmates demonstrated the interdependent of people and environment.

Although the learner’s expectations can influence both behaviour and the environment, it is crucial in SCT that the learner has self-regulation (Eggen & Kauchak, 2010) so that the learner can take responsibilities for his own learning.  

On the other hand, Behaviourism defines learning as a relatively enduring change in observable behaviour that occurs as a result of experience and is influenced by stimuli from the environment (Schunk, 2004; Skinner, 1995 as cited in Eggen & Kauchak, 2010, p. 164).

Breaking a school rule acts as a stimulus for the punishment and this influenced the changed behaviour in Peter and his schoolmates. However in SCT, Peter and his classmates saw the punishment (observation) and became aware of the consequences and thus Peter and his schoolmates dare not be late (change behaviour).

For Behaviourims, reinforcements and punishment are direct causes in the behaviour (Eggen & Kauckak, 2010; Berk, 2003). The punishment is a direct cause for being late for school (behaviour).

Although both theories look at behaviours and the environment; Behaviorism looks at behaviour and environment as a one way relationship whereas SCT sees behaviour and environment as a reciprocal causesation (Eggen & Kauchuk, 2010).

 

Three main criticisms of Social Cognitive Theory

SCT states that behaviour is learnt through observations (Eggen & Kauchak, 2010).

However, people diagnosed with developmental disorder such as ASD, ADHA and learning disabilities (Barlow & Durand, 2009) would not be able to observe others. This is because people diagnosed with ASD have impairment in social interactions and communication and restricted behaviour, interests and activities (American Psychiatric Association, 2000 as cited in Barlow & Durand, 2009, p. 512). Their lack of communication skill has impaired them from communicating with people and thus lacking in social interaction (Barlow & Durand, 2009). This have make observations deem as impossible.

Children diagnosed with learning disabilities and ADHA have very limited attention span (Barlow & Durand, 2009). Attention is an element required for observing behaviour (Eggen & Kauchak, 2010) which is lacking in people diagnosed with developmental disorder.

Although behaviour can be learnt through observation as stated in SCT (Eggen & Kauchak, 2010), not all behaviours can be learnt.

A child cannot learn to write by just observing how his parents or teachers write. Writing is a skill that would require the coordination between the eye, the hand and fine motor skill of the learner. These are complex mechanism of the body (Berk, 2003) that is beyond observation. Early childhood educators believe that a child has to be in the correct developmental stage (Berk, 2003) where the child is both physical and cognitively ready for writing.

Although an individual could pick up the behaviour of smoking by observing his peers, the individual may choose not to do so because of his social consciousness and responsibilities; knowing that smoking is harmful to self, people and the environment.

It is also impossible to quit smoking by observation. Quitting smoking takes lots of encouragement, determination and a good intervention program such as self-modification programs (Corey, 2009) to help; which is beyond simple observation.

SCT stated that behaviour is largely learned from the reciprocal relationship between the environment and people (Eggen & Kauchak, 2010), however behaviour change could be due to biological factors (Halson, 2003).

According to Halson (Halson, 2003) changes in biological factor could bring about behavioural changes. A change in hormones of a person could be due to stress, depression, osteoporosis and weight gain such as women who experiences menopause or even athletes who are undergoing extreme training. The biological changes in the body trigger emotional behaviour which has little to do with observation. For instance, jealousy can drive one to behave inappropriately which is inconsistence of one’s behaviour (Niedenthal, Krauth-Gruber & Ric, 2006, Halson, 2003).

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References

Barlow, D. H. & Durand, V. M. (2009). (5th ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth/Gengage Learning.

Berk, L. E. (2003). (6th ed.). Boston: Pearson Education.

Corey, G. (2009). . (8th ed.). Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole/Gengage Learning.

Eggen, P. & Kauchak, D. (2010). (8th ed.). New Jersey: Pearson Education.

Halson, S. L. (2003). Retrieved 27 February, 2011 from http://eprints.qut.edu.au/15790/

Niedenthal, P., Krauth-Gruber, S., & Ric, F. (2006). New York: Psychology Press.

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my birthday

ya, its another year has gone by and reflecting on it...

i have achieved a salary stastifation, well of course it could go higher,,,

that is the biggest achievement i have made this year, which i have to change job to achieve.

the other achievement is well, i have completed part of my degree course in psychology and still have more to move on with...

the things i failed to do:

learn to swim, slime down, stress out with financial problems...

what i wish for the coming year...

achieve better results in my career,

get higher pay

pass my exams this year with As,

better enlighment and achievement with tao

better commitments of my fellows dao qing in tao

meet up with all my idols,

be healthy

be wise

be rich

lesser worries

happier

no regrets

if there is only one wish, i wish to be happy... 

all for my birthday.

and happy birthday to all the people in this workd that has the same birthday as me

and that of those i know of:

md. yusuf

tay guan liang

and my TWIN sister.

 

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MERRY CHRISTMAS EVERYONE !

the christmas song that i like best

to everyone, MERRY CHRISTMAS !

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LBY7xmXfHeg

 

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distinction for my written assingment

for this assignment, i would never expect to get a distinction grade cause the lecturer is very strict with his marking and his test is not an easy one.

it sure is a surprise result and good news for me since it has been a while to have anything that is good to happen for me.

this written assignment was posted out earlier under application of REBT to an episode in my life.

well who say there is no reward for all the suffereing, at least from my misery, i got a distinction grade out of ihe experience.

lol

 

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